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It is the story of Panchita, a pregnant Paraguayan woman who loses her husband, a General of the Paraguayan Army, in battle. This film is the first one of this corpus whose main character is a woman, a Paraguayan one, who carries the hope of reconstruction the country and who has been close to the war. La Sangre y la Semilla has been recently restored, which is great news.
Maybe this is a good historical chance to edit the novel. At a cinematographic level, this period is a ghost in the memory, an audiovisual gap. It is a private undertaking which, in , commemorates the centennial of the war: Argentino hasta la muerte Argentine until death. Its title —of a nationalist nature— opposes to its antinationalist criticism, which seems to anticipate the next decade in Argentina.
The historical film talks about the lives of three friends who enroll in the army in Buenos Aires, and ranges between drama. Its main actor, Roberto Rimoldi Fraga, was a figure of the Buenos Aires star-system, an actor and singer. Later in the film, at the battlefront in Corrientes, the allied army takes the house of a Paraguayan woman as a field hospital. The main character falls in love with this woman.
Once again, the Paraguayan woman is a central figure, placed in the intersection between collaboration and counterintelligence, this being the only film that talks about another topic typical of cinema, such as espionage wars. In one shot, it shows the flags of all countries involved in the conflict, as a reminder for the audience, showing the general lack of knowledge of such a bloody war. Vera, Paraguay, is shot. This film was watched by the vast majority of the urban Paraguayan population. This is the first example in the present corpus of a film requested by a central government that directly talks about the War of the Triple Alliance, made to create a State image as a factor of identity.
Although its poor performances and dull reciting of dialogues, this is a film every Paraguayan remembers, an undeniable icon in the cinematography and politics of the country, a benchmark of the Paraguayan identity projection, beyond its political ideas. In connection to In , during the dictatorship in Uruguay, the only Uruguayan production related to the War of the Triple Alliance was show up to present was made: Mataron a Venancio Flores J.
This is a fiction film that talks about State violence during the XIX century to, at the same time, talk about the Uruguayan dictatorship in the XX century. The war as a post-modern pastiche and the change of era In , Sylvio Back, a Brazilian documentarist, made A guerra do Brasil. In the Brazil of the recently recovered democracy, this film emerges in a very different audiovisual context, after the appearance of video technology and the possibilities it offers.
An amusing criticism of the role Brazil plays during the War, framed in the prolific and diverse work of Back, the film makes a review of the events of the war and unveils a new level of density in its representation, at the same time it operates as an intertext not only with documents, drawings and paintings of the war, but also making the first filmic intertexts, which include direct quotes. The literature of the last decades has observed an outbreak of historical novels, both in Argentina and Brazil.
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Some of these novels talk, directly or indirectly, about the War of the Triple Alliance, and Many of these films show strong and transgressive women that fight to change the course of things; transgressive, modern and fighting heroes. Two Argentine digital documentaries share the idea of history as a narration and, therefore, both are interested in the historical uncertainties, episodes that show an invented history of the facts, rather than truthful information we may have on them.
Both are choral documentaries. Inevitable in those stories, the ghosts of the War of the Triple Alliance appear, in this case as a whole army that emerges in some trenches. Contra Paraguay F. Sosa, Argentina, centers its narrative in a barbecue where young historians in Buenos Aires discuss different topics of the war and their own versions. At least three digital feature films about the myths and legends of the war were shot in Paraguay, a land full of myths and legends. The first one, Felipe Canasto D. Cardona Herreros, Paraguay, , is based on a popular legend strongly rooted in Paraguay.
The legend says that a group of women living in their own community and sharing their men received or found body parts they could sometimes identify and, then, partially bury. This film tells the story of three of those women, and the birth of a legendary character that carries death to all those who can see him. Filled with mystery and suspense, multiple off voices tell the myth of those treasures, protected by ghosts that can only be found by someone of a noble soul and with a pure purpose. Godoy, Paraguay, This thriller film told in a tone of comedy tells the story of a treasure hunter and his journey until he finds the treasure.
Even in this academic context, the relevance of treasures, spirits and ghosts from the war are highlighted. To conclude with the historical audiovisual corpus, we must highlight that the War of the Triple Alliance continues being part of different audiovisual works and projects.
In , A guerra do Paraguai L.
Also in Brazil, the director Vicente Ferraz is working in a project called Bastardos Ferraz, Brazil, under development , a fiction about the revenge of the Brazilian slaves during the Paraguayan War. This will be focused on the role women currently have in the Paraguayan society and will show interviews to different female historians. We know that it is very likely for the topic of the feminization of the Paraguayan post-war population to be part of the documentary. This preliminary research has enabled us to build a considerable corpus of works that address the topic of the War of the Triple Alliance from the different perspectives and countries.
Most of these [films] have been shot after the year and many of the oldest materials have been lost. Memory needs of a hardware or support forits software. In the case of films, the hardware is volatile, fragile. In this sense, it is important to strengthen the idea that the State must safeguard the preservation of the cinematographic heritage, legacy typical of the XX century, through State cinematheques.
Brazil and Uruguay have cinematheques for preserving and disseminating the historical archives. At the same time, the Film Museum of the City of Buenos Aires has been partially assuming the role of cinematheque. In Paraguay, private collections exist, but there is no State cinematheque. On the other hand, it appears that today the role of a cinematheque cannot be separated from the digitalization of the national archives.
AR or the bank of cultural content in Brazil, are worth noticing, measures taken for the preservation and dissemination of the audiovisual heritage. From this initial path, we may draw some general lines or topics worked by the films in this corpus. In fiction films there is a prevalence of biopics of historical figures, in which the war is somehow represented.
The presence of ghosts, enigmas and tragedies is also constant , in the the nineteenth century contrast between popular beliefs and science, and ghosts as the central topic of the literary romanticism of that century. Myths and legends are central in the audiovisual narrations of the War of the Triple Alliance —a war that is somehow invisible. As regards documentaries, most analyze the war through multiple voices that create a general view that understands history as a narration. The State has been involved in different levels with the construction of these perspectives.
We can underline the involvement of the armies in many of the examples, as advisors in historical subjects or contributing some voices in documentaries. At the. Based on this research, we planned some possible actions in connection to the management of the audiovisual heritage and the War of the Triple Alliance. Considering the difficulty to access these films and the poor condition of some, there is a need for a thorough search for other filmic materials, their restauration and the subsequent incorporation of the corpus to an online platform for public access of these productions in the th anniversary of the War.
Furthermore, another possible and interesting bond with the general public would be a sort of a backward transmedia: the design and construction of pre-cinema devices that include visual products of the war, animating existing visual elements and at the same time educating about the creation of the first moving images and the ruling mentality in the XIX centur y, the era of romanticism, industrial revolutions and the rise of the mechanical reproduction of images.
Overall, the zoetrope is the great-grandfather of the gif, and the telegraph of the Internet. At the same time, we started another research on.
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There is, in contrast with the few films made about the war, an important number of theatre plays on the War of the Triple Alliance, written even during the war. This is another line of cultural research that could be followed and even be connected with film projects by means of a specific contest. In connection to the reasearch made about the memor y of the war, popular manifestations and commemorations of important dates or reenactments that currently exist in Brazil and in Paraguay are especially interesting, and could be object of films distributed in different platforms, as a collective exercise of memory.
Montevideo: Ediciones CdF, , pp. Buenos Aires: Paidos.
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America, and as an opportunity for States to start understanding the importance of preserving and opening the archives to society. Experience of the collective management of the preservation of the Audiovisual Heritage in Uruguay. By , in the private sphere, the Uruguayan Cinematheque was founded, and it remains as a nonprofit organization up to now.
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Despite this long history, the national cinematic heritage issue has not had policies that allow the development works concerning the recovery, restoration, digitalization and diffusion of Uruguayan materials. For this reason, the individual work of every institution depends entirely on their economic capacity. The fire which occurred in SODRE Art Cinema in caused a great loss of part of its collection, and the compilation made by the Uruguayan Cinematheque has turned it into the archive with the highest number of Uruguayan titles ever since.
This investigation also implied the first actual contact with the above-mentioned archives work, since ANIP was also a part of it. The results corroborated the need for support for the care of the heritage of pictures in motion, and they formally put forward budget and human resources difficulties. Against this background, representatives of the four institutions started to hold meetings to discuss the issue and find a project that would link all the archives with the aim of working on the conservation, restoration and digitalization of national collections.
In , the government created a space for debate, which was called Audiovisual Commitment, in which professionals of the different areas related to Uruguayan One of the discussion tables focused on film heritage and allowed archives to define the work guidelines to be pursued and the fund-raising. Dina Pintos and the Uruguayan Cinematheque. In addition, ICAU allocated a first budget for audiovisual heritage that allowed the payment of wages and the fitting-out of technological equipment to perform the first tests.
Magnetic Plan: it is aimed at keeping in force the existing initiatives related to the conservation and digitalization of Uruguayan materials created and preserved in magnetic support, and continuing the preservation of collections of particular interest for the history of national cinema. Contemporary Cinema: This plan will carry on with the initiatives introduced during the former administration, whose objective is to locate and gather film copies totally or partially financed by ICAU through the Fund for the Promotion of Cinema.
The actual work began once the equipment was installed in LAPA facilities, and it was possible to initiate the conversion of the telecine equipment, obtained through For this purpose, the technicians decided to use only the film dragging system of the telecine and add a Nikon D photo camera to it to take pictures. The frame lighting system was replaced by an LCD lamp and uniform light was obtained.
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Both the lamp and the photo camera were connected to a computer which gave the coordinated order to activate the light and the camera and received the RAW files generated by the camera. After several tests and trial-and-error advances, it was possible to obtain 25 megapixel quality per frame. A seven-minute documentary short film was chosen for the first digitalization work.
The project awoke great interest, and the fact that it was conducted at the University got members of the School of. Engineering to cooperate in it. We also received help from important figures of the film-making world. Although the course of events changes the action plans set forth from the beginning, and the budget and human resources still need to be improved, we understand the importance in countries like Uruguay, where archives lack sufficient budget and qualified staff, and joint action makes it possible to do what it would be impossible to do separately.
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The final objective of the project is to build an only store. Even though this might be the most difficult goal to reach and the most sensitive one regarding the agreement on how things will be done, we are. This will let us share information more efficiently and improve work methods. Last, but not least, a decision on the diffusion and access to the materials digitalized by MIPA is still pending.
We believe this is an essential point and it is the reason of the work. Bringing the heritage closer to citizens is the only way in which our work will get real value and be understood and supported by the different public and private agents that must take part in the preservation of collective memory.