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- The History of Qigong and Tai Chi: Facts And Myths
Daily moderate physical activity is recommended to improve general health, as vigorous exercise is considered as a barrier to exercise among people with a sedentary lifestyle [ 1 ]. TC practice is a light-to-moderate intensity exercise [ 3 , 4 ]. TC boxing was codified between the Ming — and the beginning of the Quing dynasties — TC forms are characterized as slow circular controlled sequences of movements, which slightly differ between TC schools.
Physical exercise has a number of psychological benefits, such as reduction in mood disturbance, improvement of quality of life, well-being, and self-efficacy [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. Studies [ 9 , 10 ] have provided evidence that a psychological variable like self-efficacy predicts behavioral adhesion. Moreover, among sedentary people, mental health, well-being, and outcome expectations may influence exercise adhesion [ 10 , 12 , 13 ].
The increasing number of TC practitioners and health-related publications calls for an update of the scientific evidence supporting psychological benefits and exercise adhesion related to TC practice. However, despite its popularity, the mental health effects of TC are still unclear [ 14 ]. The conclusions of this review may result in rehabilitation initiatives and new directions for research.
Tai Chi Chian Ho Yin English Edition on Apple Books
Furthermore, a general perspective about TC health effects from previous reviews is included in this present review. High quality case-control or cohort studies with a very low risk of confounding, bias, or chance and a high probability that the relationship is causal.
Well conducted case-control or cohort studies with a low risk of confounding, bias, or chance and a moderate probability that the relationship is causal. Case control or cohort studies with a high risk of confounding , bias, or chance and a significant risk that the relationship is not causal. The historical perspective provided by examining previous reviews substantiates the conclusion about TC efficacy and directions for research being guided by emerging knowledge. A total of nine reviews from to were found [ 4 , 14 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 ], including more than 4, participants in 72 trials.
Twenty were randomized controlled trials and 50 nonrandomized trials. On the whole, the main countries of origin of publications were China for The nonrandomized studies mainly come from China. The number of subjects varied from 1 to for an age ranging between 21 and Reviews published between and suggest that TC practice provided health benefits among adults and elderly [ 17 , 19 , 21 , 23 ].
Results from balance and postural control studies showed moderate evidence concerning the efficacy of TC on reduction in falls and improving postural control. Nevertheless, a significant reduction in fear of falling and an overall functional improvement were found [ 18 , 20 , 22 ]. On the other hand, none of the studies reviewed in these reviews assessed the effects of TC on institutionalized elders with or without cognitive impairments. Women benefit more from TC in mood disturbances, whereas men reported increased positive affect in the moderate-intensity walking group. The Tai Chi was found to be as efficient as brisk walking to reduce mental and emotional stress.
The Tai Chi reported a reduction in the fear of falling and an improvement of well-being. Only the Tai Chi group showed a lifestyle change. The Tai Chi exercises self-efficacy MacAuley and Milhalko, , a specific time performance scale, session compliance. The Tai Chi group was found to improve performance self-efficacy and barriers self-efficacy to physical activity.
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The increase of self-efficacy was positively correlated with adhesion to exercises. Lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reduction in LDL cholesterol and anxiety. Wolf et al. Psychological benefits for both Tai Chi and balance training in fear of falling and well-being.
The Tai Chi group members were less afraid of falling. Interview, FES Tinetti et al.
Power and sample size to detect a variation of 3. Hernandez-Reif et al. Significant reduction in hyperactivity symptoms, anxiety, and behavioral improvements. No benefits were found on quality of life. Brown et al. The ME group received instructions from an exercise leader, whereas the walking groups autonomously used an indoor walking track.
The dependent measures for the psychological change were mood, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and personality inventories. The results showed that women in the ME group achieved a significant decrease in anger and total mood disturbances than those in the LW and LWR groups. Compared to the LW and LWR subjects, women in the ME group also showed a greater decrease in confusion, depression, and tension in the profile of mood states.
Li et al. Cognitive functions were not assessed either before or after the intervention. During the TC course, participants were instructed to replicate the motions, postures, and movement at the speed of the instructor. No information was given concerning the effect of age on the time to learn the TC forms. Dependent measures were exercise barriers and performance self-efficacy.
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Class attendance was also recorded as an exercise-behavior outcome. Results showed a general improvement in TC exercise self-efficacy. Class compliance was predicted by both dimensions of self-efficacy. Regression coefficients of barriers and performance efficacy suggested that exercise adherence was significantly related to self-efficacy cognitions [ 3 ]. The TC group met twice weekly, and the balance training and control groups met once weekly.
The practitioners reproduced the motions and speed of the movements from the expert demonstrations.
The History of Qigong and Tai Chi: Facts And Myths
No information was given for the time needed to learn the TC form. A trend of a higher increase in self-efficacy and overall improvement was found in favor of the TC group, but this was not statistically significant. The majority of the randomized controlled studies reviewed here concerned TC benefits in adults aged 55 and older.
This is also among such population that research has shown tangible results. Few nonrandomized studies have targeted TC effects on younger and middle-aged people [ 26 , 27 , 30 ]. However, the effects noted should be interpreted cautiously considering the lack of information on the description of the experimental settings and interventions used. For some authors, the intensity component of exercise could mediate adhesion [ 3 , 31 , 37 ]. People who do not like intense exercise or the deconditioned ones might benefit more from TC exercise [ 4 , 26 , 37 , 38 ].
Analyses according to gender have been almost entirely absent from TC research. One study [ 37 ] that did investigate gender differences demonstrated that men may benefit more from walking exercises in terms of mood improvements, whereas this effect was observed after TC practice in women. The majority of studies have described the psychological benefits of TC practice.
Time is an important factor in physical and psychological interventions. The relationship between length and frequency of exercise and psychological effects was not addressed in most of the studies. Moreover, as TC is classified as a form of moderate intensity exercise [ 4 ], it is important to take into account public health recommendations about exercise [ 1 ]. In the present review, one study used an intervention procedure according to the recommendations [ 25 ].
Tsang et al. Besides the effects of the intervention length and the volume of practice, the role of the expert guidance and the conditions in which the TC training are given should be taken into account when assessing its beneficial effects.
Studies that directly compared TC with other forms of exercise undertaken at the same intensity are not numerous [ 33 , 35 , 37 , 38 ]. Others [ 3 , 25 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 38 ] have shown beneficial effects of TC practice on mood, well-being, self-efficacy, and exercise participation.
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However, the results observed in TC practice were not statistically significant compared to other exercises of equivalent intensity. In addition, studies comparing TC with other forms of exercise need equivalence testing in terms of intensity, volume, and length of training.
To date, only three studies have used blind outcome assessment to prevent performance and detection, including two from the Atlanta FICSIT trial bias [ 33 , 35 , 38 ]. However, blinding was not mentioned as a method to prevent bias, so it is not clear whether or not the authors tried to keep the patients, caregivers, or the outcome assessors unaware of the intervention procedures. The conditions in which TC learning is conducted need further examination, as a number of studies relied on grossly different styles and forms of TC.
When a sequence of movements has to be learned by heart, focusing on the exact movement form may be a disadvantage for people with learning disabilities, spatial perception problems, or cognitive impairments. In addition, the mind—body effects of TC exercise could be an adjustment between cognition and action during TC practice. A wonderful art! This can facilitate the kind of re-patterning that leads to lasting release of chronic holdings and, in many cases, a profound change of mind and body.
Jim Bayer with Sifu Adam Mizner. Quality authentic Yang Style Taiji in Milwaukee. Brains typically lose mass as they age, but less so in the b More 'youthful' brains have a reduced risk of dementia and mindfulness meditation techniques actually strengthen brain networks. Our research offers one possible reason for this -- using our breath to control one of the brain's natural chemical messengers, noradrenaline, which in the right 'dose' helps the brain grow new connections between cells.